Rick Richey is a NASM-CPT, CES, PES, and Master Trainer.
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Hello, and welcome to the NSM CPT podcast. My name is Rick Richey and today we're picking up where we left off, we have been barreling through basically the testing domains for the CPT seven. So if you're studying for the certified personal trainer is seventh edition that NSM is going through right now, if you are studying for this, we over the past several weeks have been doing a highlight reel kind of a study guide, a real high level study guide for that content. Now, if you're already NSM certified, I think these are great reminders of the information that you've studied. So let's get into talking about what we're going to talk about today. So we've covered the first four domains, the testing domains, you're going to be going through. So this is domain number five is the fifth domain, we have one more domain after this. And this one's going to be broken up into two different podcasts. And the fifth domain is covering chapters 13 through 20. So chapters 13 through 20. These are exercise technique and training instructions. And 24% of your examination is going to be taken from this content 24%. That's more than any other domain that we have gone through and individual domains. So we're going to talk about exercise technique and training instruction, starting in chapter 13. So let's go ahead and talk about what we're going to be talking about. First of all, let's get into really one of the centerpieces of NSM, which is integrated training principles. And integrated training is very important for us at nasn. Because if I'm working let's let's just say with athletes, I'm working with athletes, then it's very important that as I work with an athletic population, that I am not only focused on one thing, that I am integrating different concepts into that training protocol. And integrated training is a concept that combines all forms of exercise into one system. So here we're talking about flexibility, cardio, respiratory core balance, plyometrics, speed, agility, and quickness, resistance training, all of these are being put into a training system. And it's also important to note that the integrated training principles are systematically implemented through NSM. And NSM, will do something that that many other focuses should be, which is a progressive overload. So it is a progressive system, and thinking about a system itself, which means we kind of have a good idea of where a person starts, and where we plan on taking them. Now their goals are important. But we have a system in place that says, Well, if this is where you are physically, then here's a system that helps us to deliver you to your goals. And we have an entire system, the NSM Oh PT model that says this is where the goals primarily are. So it might be strength or hypertrophy, and might be power. And I have a map that can put you in through those goals. But the integrated system, putting all the types of exercise within each major category. So I know it's not just resistance training. It's not just cardio, it's not just flexibility training. But there's so many other things that we're going to implement. And that's integrated training principles. Now, there are fundamental movement patterns. And some of the fundamental movement patterns are going to be we'll break them down into five major patterns right here. So the first one, we're talking about squatting, so there's a squatting pattern, there's a hip hinge pattern, and a hip hinge pattern would be think about like a Romanian deadlift or think about a kettlebell swing, that is a hinge pattern. There are pulling motions and pushing motions. So squatting, hip hinge, pulling, pushing, and then vertical pressing, would be another example of fundamental movement patterns. Now, it's interesting because you could kind of break a lot of these down into pushing and pulling patterns. And it just depends on what area of your body is doing it and what plane of motion you're in.
So the planes of motion make it very relevant when we look at change and how we're going to get people to push and pull in different ways. Now let's talk about something we call the acute variables. And it does Doesn't mean that they are precious or darling. Acute means that it is something that is short term. So the variables means that these are the things that we change acute short term. So what are the short term variables of training, so it could be repetitions could be the sets. So repetitions is the number of sequential exercises that you do. So like a push up how many repetitions you might do 20 push ups. All right? Well, we might do one set of that. So your sets are acute variable. And as you get stronger, as you get more stable, then you might add more sets to that your training intensity. So the intensity, you adding more weight, working a little bit faster, trying to increase the amount of minutes that you're doing, but that intensity, how hard you're working is an acute variable. Another example of acute variables would be rest intervals. So after you're done with your set, how long is your rest before you go into the next set, if it's a circuit, then it might be very limited. And at the end of the circuit, you've might say, Okay, well, now let me take a minute or two a break at the end, to build up my rest. So there are different ways to program rest intervals. And then your training volume and your training volume, there are two different ways to look at it. There's sets times reps, so your overall training volume, and then there's your load volume. So that means that you can add the amount of weight that you lifted into your sets and into your reps, as well. So there are some examples of acute training variables right there. What else is going on? Let's talk about more of this integrated training concept when we look at flexibility training as a centerpiece for somebody integrated training. So let's go flexibility training. And that could include several things, we'll get into it a little bit more, but things like self myofascial techniques and stretching, there's cardio respiratory training. Well, there are many different types of cardio respiratory training, just like there are different types of flexibility training. So when is a good time to implement certain types of cardio respiratory training, or certain types of flexibility, training, core balance training, so reactive or plyometric training, speed, agility, and quickness training, and then resistance training, all of these can fit into a single workout. So if you've got an hour with a client that could fit in there, or it can be broken up and divvied out along different types of training protocols, so you might have a day where you don't implement your plyometric or speed, agility and quickness, because you want to focus on that on maybe a different day, you might have clients where those two things don't apply at all that you don't feel comfortable, that this is the right exercise for them. So everything's individualized, you have to individualize your programs. But having a system to follow for the general population is highly indicated. And it's a great system to follow, it makes it relatively easy. Now, it's, it doesn't mean that you can look at the Ott model, and you've got it all figured out. Don't think that that there there are challenges to it, because there's thickness within this concept. But it is an excellent training model to follow. And once you get used to it, your programming just comes quickly feel a lot more comfortable with your programming and how you work with clients and how you're developing those macro cycles and mezzo cycles, micro cycles for your clients. So let's look at the OPT model.
Some of the things we like about the OP t model is one is that it's proven. And it's an easy to use system of periodization. It gives you a step by step and a play by play of how to get people to their goals. And if you look at the phases and the model, the phases are basically saying if this is your goal, this is what you do to get there. And these are the steps that you take. So if your goal is stabilization, or endurance and endurance, then phase one stabilization, endurance training is telling you that's the outcome. And that's where your focus should be. And you can move through the model in that way. Right. So this model is also used to create programs for clients with various goals. Now, you might not have an athlete client that you're working with, but it doesn't mean that they don't want to get maximally stronger. It doesn't mean that they may not ever want to move towards the power. In fact, you can have people that aren't athletes but are very interested in the kind of the concepts of fitness and still want to be able to do the fitness based training the way athletes would do it but for no other reason than just for better fitness. So based on their goals, what do you want out of it, it just gives people an opportunity to follow a model and to implement different types of exercise so that they can go through periodization. And then maybe focus on what they want to do most Well, what do most people want to do? Most people, the common goals are to reduce body fat, might be might be the number one goal that we get from people that sign up for personal training. The other is to increase lean body mass. So people want to build some muscle, they want to get stronger, and they want to build some more muscle. And then maybe also you would look at they want to enhance general sports performance as the topping out our three most common goals. So reducing body fat, increasingly in body mass, and enhancing general sports performance. Well, let's look at this. We have the old PT model that's going to take us through different levels of muscular adaptation. There's number one, that first step in though PT model is the stabilization level stabilization. Why don't we do that, to prepare the body for the demands of higher levels of training, there are two major adaptions that adaptations that are going to be here, improving movement patterns, and enhancing stabilization. So we want people to move better, we want them to learn how to move. And it's this a good place to do it, because we're doing it with a little bit lighter weight and doing it a slower tempo, so we can focus on technique a little bit more. And then while we're moving slower, and while we're lifting a little bit lighter weight, but for more repetitions, we're enhancing our joint stabilization and the endurance that these muscles have to contend with in order to stabilize those joints. And then the next level in the Ott model moving from stabilization level into the strength level strength. Well, that's the emphasis of the strength level. But we also want to maintain some stabilization and endurance and increase overall muscular strength. So we are building on to our stabilization. We're building strength onto our stabilization. And then we can look at the power level. The next level, the three levels in though PT model stabilization, strength and power. That third level power level. Power is the emphasis on this level, our goal is to maintain stabilization and endurance, and to increase our overall muscular strength. But then we can start focusing on how fast we move things as well. And that is power in all of it occurs in a progressive sequence. So stabilization before strength, strength before power. That's how we will focus it and that's how we will direct it. And let's, let's go through these phases one by one. Let's start with phase one of the PT model stabilization endurance in stabilization, endurance, we're going to teach optimal movement patterns. Let's figure out how to move this goes into our exercise technique. What is it that you want these exercises to look like? We are going to teach that proper form looking at the five kinetic chain checkpoints, maintaining alignment, creating optimal levels of joints and core stabilization and postural control. That is another goal of ours we need joint stabilization, core stabilization, postural control, maintaining that while going through these dynamic movements of exercise, and we also want to prepare the body for the demands of higher levels of training that eventually they're going to be moving towards as they progress through the OBC model.
Alright, let's look at phase two. Phase Two of the OPC model strength endurance,
we want to enhance stabilization endurance while increasing prime mover strength. So here's what you're going to do in strength endurance, you're going to do a superset. The first exercise would be a traditional strength training exercise, followed immediately in a superset. So right into the other one. A second exercise, similar exercise, but its focus is stabilization. So let's do an example here. body part we're going to focus on chest. So a strength focused exercise might be a benchpress. So we'll do a bench press, and then we're going to superset it immediately with a stabilization focused exercise which might be a push up. Alright, so we go benchpress and then we run out of gas. We're looking at our topping out our repetitions without any rest, zero break, just transition time moving right into the pushup. Well another example let's look at back we're doing a back exercise we might do a seated cable row. That Siebel seated cable row might superset with a standing cable row because one is strength focused, but when you stand now All of a sudden you have to focus a lot more on your stabilization. So we're shifting focus from strength to stabilization, but you're doing both. And you're working first, your primary Movers. In the first exercise, you're trying to elicit primary mover strength. And then it's immediately followed with an exercise that challenges stability and postural control. And it produces an increase in muscular endurance, joint stability, and helps to support your posture while you're at that as well. All right, that was phase two, let's move to phase three, muscular development, muscular development, building muscle, this is hypertrophy is a word that we use very often within the industry, increasing the size of skeletal muscle. What's our goal and muscular development phase phase three? Well, it tells you what it is in the title. But let's talk about a little bit more the focus is on maximal muscle growth, focus and muscular development is maximum muscle growth, increase our volume, so we're going to get lots of sets, the intensity is going to go up to a moderate to heavy intensity, and you are increasing your sets. So even though your rep range might lower and muscular development, your set range might increase, your weight will increase. So your load and volume will increase overall in muscular development. Alright, this phase, let's be honest, this phase is optimal, because not everybody wants to get bigger. And so you might hear people say, I don't want to get too big, and they're quick to jump into that. I don't want to get too big. And I will tell you that I've been training people for about 20 years, and at no point that we do a workout. And the next day somebody calls me up and be like, oh, Rick, you did it. You made me too big. I woke up this morning, and I'm huge. It's a bearish thing to get out of bed. I don't know what to do about this. It doesn't happen. I don't know if you noticed. But building muscle is not easy. It's very challenging.
And if you feel it's sneaking up on you get out of this particular phase. All right, good. Let's move on to phase four max strength, maximal strength. The focus of maximal strength is on maximal prime mover strength. It's about lifting heavy loads. Common for strength athletes, you're going to see power lifter, strong man shot putters, America, football, American football linemen. maximal strength training is highly indicated for these individuals. And I think it's also good because it is preparatory, that's a nice preparatory phase as we start to look at what phase five looks like in our power phase. So this is predominantly we're trying to work our primary movers and make them stronger. And this can elicit hypertrophy, it can help to develop muscle. But really, we're going to see a lot more muscle recruitment and even heard of the all or none principle of muscular muscle recruitment, which says if a muscle contracts, it contracts 100%. But that fiber, we're talking about a single fiber, not the entire muscle like so we're not talking about the entire quadriceps group, which means that there are a lot of muscle fibers in the quadriceps that are relatively dormant, they don't participate in activity. So lifting maximally helps to create that communication between the nervous system and those muscles that basically slaps them around and says, wake up, it is time to join the rest of us and help us pick things up. So max strength training, creating that cellular adaptation, recruiting more muscle fibers focus on maximal strength production. Phase five, and the power of phase phase five power phase, increase our goal, our purpose to increase maximal strength. So we're going to lift heavy things, and to increase the rate of force production, how fast we produce force. So we're going to improve velocity of movement, and athleticism. How How are we going to do that? Well, when we move from one level to the next level, and no PT model, we experience a superset. So phase five, we just moved out of strength into the power level. And this is going to be a power superset. So your first exercise is a traditional strength training exercise with a very heavy load, one to five repetitions. And we're going to superset that with a second exercise and its focus is rate of force production, how fast we can move it. Alright, so let's We did chest and back to the last one. So let's do chest and back for this as well. For body part being chest, we could stay with benchpress as a traditional strength focused exercise, doing a heavy lift. And then as soon as we're done, the only break is the transition from the bench standing up grabbing the medicine ball, and doing an explosive, medicine ball chest pass. So we're trying to move as quickly as we can. This is a concept called post activation potentiation. So what you're doing with that heavy lift, is you are activating a lot of muscle fibers. And then post activation, our goal is to now lift something that's very light very fast. And we increase the potential of speed at which we can move that. So we could also do a back exercise like a lat pulldown, and a lat pull down strength focus, so as heavy as you can live, so we're looking at one to five repetitions, and then you can go into a medicine ball soccer throw, and we're not going to the answer, you can't throw this ball anymore. We're not trying to exhaust you, we are trying to move that med ball as fast as possible. So that's why you don't see it's a lightweight, but you don't see 30 repetitions, you don't see 60 seconds of us doing it. For athletic performance, what you do is if you work into and through exhaustion, then you minimize how much you learn to teach your body to move faster. So the goal of this isn't metabolic conditioning. The goal of this is to be able to produce velocity of movement to increase your athleticism. That's power phase five. All right, very good. Let's move on to chapter 14 flexibility training concepts, Chapter 14 flexibility training concepts. What is flexibility? Well, flexibility is the normal extensibility of soft tissue, allowing for full range of motion.
Factors that can influence flexibility are going to be things like genetics, myofascial tissue elasticity, your your joint structure, your age, your sex, previous injuries, your activity level, all of those are going to affect your flexibility, your ability for your tissues to extend, allowing for this full or optimal range of motion. So the human movement system, let's just review this for a moment, the kinetic chain, which is made up the muscular skeletal and nervous systems. And if one or more of these systems or segments are not functioning properly, dysfunctions can develop. And it's referred to as postural distortion patterns. So you might see things like a forward head position or an imbalance and that imbalance, let's say that you have one side of your back tighter than the other side. And that can create a shift and cause poor posture to take place. And that poor posture and then starts to alter movement. And so now your movement is not as optimized. And then some of these things can eventually lead to injury. And so we're not here fearmongering injury at all. But we are certainly looking at this saying well, if I want to first of all, ensure quality movement, I want to ensure that I'm helping people develop optimal performance. But I also want to minimize the chance that people are going to move into dysfunctional patterns. Because of me, as a coach, I didn't pay attention to those things. And as a movement professional, that's something we need to pay attention to movement. So we'll look at this, this kinetic chain and the five kinetic chain checkpoints and understand how the muscular skeletal and nervous system work together in the kinetic chain. So there are muscle imbalances that can occur in alterations in length the muscles surrounding a joint as what we'll look at when it comes to muscle imbalances. And muscles are either overactive or they're underactive. So for instance, if you've got, let's say that there, it's like a door in a in a doorway, right, and that doorway doesn't swing just 90 degrees, it can go 180. So you can open a door and walk in one way or you can open the door and walk in the other way. So it doesn't it's not just limited at that hinge it swings 180 degrees. Well, if that the anchor is often that or the system that tries to keep the door lined up with the wall, it starts to shift and that means that there's something off with the system that's pulling in one direction. So one side is pulling it too much the other side's not pulling it enough to create it and allow it to even out well if that's happening then one sides overactive the other side. underactive, and what we want to do, and that's a simplification because but remember this, these imbalances are muscular, they are skeletal and they are nervous system. So you say, Well, what if it's a nervous system in balance? What's the nervous system in balance that's in balancing what the muscular system and the skeletal system. So it's a muscular imbalance, then that will then say, well, it's a muscular imbalance balance, but that affects the skeletal system and then in turn affects the nervous system and how we recruit in our recruitment patterns. So we want to look at that and try to help support people in balancing those out. muscle imbalances could be things like reciprocal inhibition, where the agonist is signaled to contract and the antagonist is inhibited. Think about reciprocal inhibition, like a bicep curl. If I do a bicep curl, then preferably my tricep relaxes a little bit so my bicep can curl that that is reciprocal inhibition, altered reciprocal inhibition, the overactive agonist, right, is decreasing the neural drive to its functional antagonist. And we see that a lot we talk about a lot with things like the hip flexors, where the hip flexors might lead us to an anterior pelvic tilt, tilt. The hip flexors are short, tight, overactive, and the primary hip extensor would then be underactive, which would be the gluteus maximus.
So if I have overactive hip flexors, then my glutes could be under active create, and that creates this altered reciprocal inhibition that can then lead to synergistic dominance, synergistic dominance, where my glutes are no longer really participating as much as they should in hip extension, which is the primary mover. So the secondary movers the synergist start to take over, like the hamstrings maybe, and the posterior fibers of the adductor magnus, the synergist take over function for an inhibited or weak primary mover. So synergistic dominance center just take over the function of an inhibited or weak primary mover. And that example would be again, like the glutes being underactive being the primary mover in hip extension. So the synergist the hamstrings start to take over and say, let me take let me get posterior fibers of that adductor magnus going in and now we got it. Which is tricky, right? Because the more that the hamstrings and the poster of fiber, the adductor magnus start to say, I've got hip extension, then what are the glutes gonna do the glutes go, oh, okay, go ahead. And then it backs off more and the more it backs off, the more than who claimed your hamstrings and adding Addy Max has to take it over. And the more they take over, maybe the more the glutes start to relax so synergistic dominance can build really into this incredible cycle of dysfunction. Let's talk about overactive and underactive muscles, overactive muscles and muscle that's held in a chronic state of contraction, and an underactive muscle is a muscle experiencing neural inhibition and limited recruitment. Now, that doesn't mean that the overactive one is always short. But it can be the underactive ones are not always in a lengthened position, but they can be they commonly are. But I want to think about this overactive muscles. muscles that are held in a chronic state of contraction might be the hamstrings and an anterior pelvic tilt that we talked about. The glutes aren't firing the overactive hip flexors, causing reciprocal inhibition to the glutes, the glutes aren't firing. Ideally, the hamstrings take over. So the hamstrings are in a lengthened position in an anterior pelvic tilt, but but they keep contraction in a lengthened position. So there are different concepts that go through it. So just because something is short does or overactive doesn't mean it's short, but it is a common dysfunction that takes place. Alright, let's talk about some scientific rationale for flexibility training. First thing we're gonna look at is something called pattern overload. Pattern overload with dysfunctions caused by repeating the same movement over a long period of time just repeating things over and over again. And that repetitive pattern overload can gives us good rationale for flexibility training, but there's also something called the cumulative injury cycle. And cumulative injury cycle says that dysfunctions can lead to injury if left unchecked. So cumulative injury cycle starts where you've got tissue trauma, and that tissue trauma when the tissue and trauma happens. There's inflammation that takes place, inflammation that can lead to muscle spasms and the tightening and the hypertonicity of those muscles, then that can lead to some adhesions, and that adhesions can alter the neuromuscular control of that muscle and that altered neuromuscular control can lead to imbalance and that muscular imbalance can then lead to tissue trauma. So we've got that cycle with tissue trauma, inflammation, muscle spasms, adhesion, altered muscular control, muscle imbalances, tissue trauma. And so that is the cumulative injury cycle. And it's just the dysfunctions that can potentially lead to injury if it's left unchecked. All right, let's talk about some things, some strategies some techniques when it comes to flexibility training. First one I look at is called self myofascial techniques.
So if myofascial techniques are used for treating and breaking up adhesions of the fascia and the muscle tissue, not only that it is used to inhibit neural activation in that muscle, causing the muscle to calm down, so we have a neurological decrease by applying pressure. Through self myofascial techniques, self myofascial techniques could take place with a foam roller, with a I mean, there's so many things that used to these days, there are companies that that produce foam rollers and funny shaped rollers and balls and different size balls, some of them vibrate, some of them are squishy, some of them are very dense and hard. All of these are designed to apply pressure to the mild fascia, muscle and facial systems. And to to to help minimize some hypertonicity. And over activity and those muscles. static stretching, static stretching is what we usually think of what usually when we think about stretching, which is taking the muscle to it's the first point of real tension, not to the point of pain, I think that that's also one of the reasons people don't like stretching, static stretching, is because they feel like it should hurt. And the truth of the matter is it should not hurt. But you go to a point of a mild stretch, and you passively take it to that muscle to the point of tension and you hold the stretch, usually we'll see that we hold that for about 30 seconds, we hold it for 30 seconds, it helps to create something called Auto genic inhibition autogenic inhibition, which are the receptors within the same muscles that you're working on, causing the muscles to relax or to calm down. Great. So that is static stretching. Remember the process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding that stretch, usually for about 30 seconds, and then it can relax. And if it does, you want to get further into that range of motion, you can just stretch it again move a little bit farther into it. There's something called active stretching. And active stretching is common in the strength training phase of the OP t model. So we have three levels in that strength training phase. So active stretching is actually quite good to do during that phase. And it's a type of stretching that uses agonist and synergist to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion. So what you might have is somebody doing a kneeling or standing hip flexor stretch, and they're trying to stretch their hip flexors. But the goal isn't to be like what's the greatest stretch that I can get for the hip flexors. The goal is let me use my glutes to contract and move me through a range of motion. So that my muscles are now used to take me to and through that end range of motion. And if I can do that, as a form of flexibility training, then I'm creating this reciprocal inhibition. So my glutes calling causing my hip flexors to calm down. But I'm also practicing a strength training warm up for my glutes, which is why it is a good protocol leading into some of the strength training activities or the strength training warm ups, it's a nice warm up to add on top of it that is active stretching, then there's dynamic stretching. dynamic stretching is a type of stretching that uses the force production of a muscle and the body's momentum to take the joint through a full available range of motion. So that might be you may have seen people where they put their arms out in front of them and they kick their their feet up to their hands. That's a dynamic stretch. They're using their muscles and momentum to help it get to that range of motion. So there's a part of dynamic stretching that includes that I might lift dynamically my knees to my chest and then hug it to my chest. And as I walk and that is a type of dynamic flexibility, dynamic stretch, and there are a lot of additional ideas and concepts that go into it. But that's just a brief overview of dynamic stretching, that we will focus in on our CPT seven. All right, very good. So I think that's good. We've gone through chapter 13 and 14. So we went through some integrated training and we went through some flexibility training, I think now maybe we will focus on actually let's let's do one more, let's go into our cardio and then we'll wrap it up for the for this particular episode cardio respiratory fitness training, cardio respiratory fitness, it reflects the ability of the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system to supply oxygen rich blood to skeletal muscles during sustained physical
Now, this falls under the principle of specificity. And so there are different types of cardio respiratory fitness that can be done. And the principle of specificity is going to dictate what your adaptations look like. So if you're trying to run faster, but you're running really long runs, then you're not getting better at running faster. So just like in resistance training principle of specificity falls under here as well. common error in cardio respiratory fitness training is the failure to consider the rate of progression, right, the process and speed of frequency, intensity, time and type, they're all increased. But oftentimes, that's not a focus and cardio respiratory training, because people think, well, let's just go for a run and get on the treadmill or get on the elliptical or get on a bike. And and this isn't really trained for many people with the same variables and the same focus of programming and and and if you're just doing cardio for enjoyment and regular fitness and maintenance, but you're not looking to progress your cardio respiratory fitness, that's fine. But if you're looking to get better and progress cardio, your cardio respiratory fitness and get better at a certain type of cardio respiratory fitness, then it's vital that you learn more about training this particular protocol with your clients. Well, we're also going to look at the fit VP principle fit VP fit fit t dash VP, what does that stand for? Well, F is for frequency, how often intensity, the eye for intensity, that's vo two max maximum heart rate, heart rate reserve, metabolic equivalent training RP so rate of perceived exertion using the talk test. That all allows us to measure intensity time, how long are you going to do this? So you're going to do this maybe frequency three days a week. Alright, well For how long? What's the intensity for how long? The The next one is? T is type. What type so you're going to work out frequency three days a week your intensity, you're going to push really hard your time 20 minutes doing what? What type of exercise you're gonna jog in a walk cardio equipment, swimming, cycling, interval training, high intensity interval training to body fartlek training, what are you going to do? What type of training he fit fit he certainly for enjoyment fit with the E for enjoyment? What do you like to do? What do you like to do you see all of these things and you're like, I really like cycling. But I heard running is the best thing for me, that's not true. As long as you're maintaining your intensities, find something you like to do work with your clients to find exercises that they enjoy, or in some instances that they dislike the least. And let's build into that. A slow build a progressive build, just like the OP t model. It is a systematic progression, moving from what they can do. And then they have comfort doing that they enjoy doing and then progressing them. And then we can work on volume, volume. So what is what is the amount of total volume that people are doing in their training and putting that volume together in a training program. So we need to hit maybe X amount of minutes if we're focusing on our time. But we're also focusing on our intensity and how far we've gone maybe would take that we forget that all into volume and then we look at our progressions. Our progressions are taking them slowly through a progressive system, and different types of training protocols. So we'll look at concepts of cardio respiratory fitness training. First of all, there's a warm up, there's a general warm up, which is a general warm up really may have nothing to do with the type of exercise that you're doing. It's just a usually Consider a cardio respiratory exercise not specific to the following or subsequent exercise on like a specific warm up, which is very specific to the subsequent training exercise that you're going to be doing. So if you're going to be lifting and a benchpress, specific warm up would be doing light benchpress. And building up before you get into your training protocols. A general warm up if you're going to be doing bench press is the five minute warm up on the treadmill that has nothing to do with benchpress.
That's a general warm up specific warm ups follow suit a little bit more specifically, increasing heart rate and cardio respiratory and your respiratory rate. That's part of the warm up tissue temperature increasing the psychological preparation for bouts of exercise as you mentally you're getting ready for going into your cardio respiratory training. So that's a part of it as well. So that's our warm up and then you get into the conditioning. And the benefits include stronger and more efficient heart. It includes improved ability to pump blood, it includes reduced risk of heart disease, and it includes improved oxygen transport, and many other things that are included in your cardio respiratory conditioning, and then you move into your cooldown, and your cooldown is just reducing your heart rate and breathing rates gradually, as your body temperature starts to calm down, return the muscles to their optimal resting links prevent blood pooling and the lower extremities and restore physiological systems to baseline. So slowly bringing it down, cooling it down, walking it off. Alright, there are different types of stages or different stages of training in our cardio respiratory focus, stage training. This is done to ensure progress in an organized fashion to ensure continual adaptations, and minimize the risk of injury and for overtraining. So there are four zones and five stages. The purpose of stage training, we want to ensure that cardio respiratory training programs progress in an organized fashion to ensure continual adaptation to minimize risk of overtraining, five stages of cardio training are discussed in this chapter on cardio training, and they use different intensities or training zones. So let's look at these zones. We've got stage one, stage one, start slowly and work up to 30 minutes of continuous activity, we don't expect any clients to jump right into 30 minutes of continuous cardio. So don't put that on your clients make sure that you are supporting them, if 15 minutes and five minutes is all they can get five minutes is all they can get, we have a goal that we'd like to get to the point where they can do that for 30 minutes. So start slowly work up to 30 minutes of continuous activity. Stage one the ability to maintain zone one for at least 30 minutes three times per week and prepare them for stage two. The goal here is to build an aerobic base to build a Robic base, the aerobic base is being built, I realized when I say build an aerobic base, it may sound like anaerobic. And that is not what I'm trying to do. So to aerobic Li build your base and foundational levels of fitness zone one is light to moderate in its intensity, stage training number two stage to intermediate levels of cardio respiratory fitness, the interval or steady state working into zone two. So this can be doing a five to 10 minute warm up and then doing 30 minutes of an exercise at a challenging or a difficult workout. And then cooling down for 510 minutes. Or it could be a five to 10 minute warm up. And then one minute, let's say this is just example one minute in zone two, pushing yourself challenging and hard.
And then going into zone one for three minute active cardio where you're bringing your heart rate back down one minute, one to three minutes zone one, one minute zone two, and then cool down for three to five minutes. That's a nice kind of interval workout that you could do in stage two. And this is to ensure again, continual adaptations and minimize the risk of overtraining and injury stage three moderately advanced client. This is a vigorous or very hard workout stage three vigorous or very hard increases the capacity of aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. So we have intervals and zones two and three. So your goal in stage three is you're doing this training zone, training zone One light to moderate training zone to challenging or hard training zone three vigorous are very hard. So you're going in between zone two and three in this stage. So one minute and zone two, and then progress to the harder zone to workout for a minute and then a zone three for one minute. And then back to zone two and for a minute back to zone three for a minute. And you can go in and out of those intervals, and then cool it down, that warm up. And that cooldown would take place in zone one that light to moderate, easy breezy for the warm up and then build the challenge in. Right, at stage three, stage four training is going to take you into zone four, zone four is very hard. Zone four is your max effort. It's a hard advanced push for a short, brief period of time this for advanced clients increases the capacity of the anaerobic energy system. And it moves in and out of all four training systems. So you do your warm up in zone one. And then you can build into your zone two for maybe one minute, and your next interval one minute and zone three and then your next intervals zone for 10 seconds all out effort as much as you can push, and then drop it down to zone one and recover. Do recovery for three minutes and zone one and then push yourself for 10 seconds in zone four. And then you can cool it down and even wrap up your training systems if that's what you want to do just a brief training stage for training for your clients as an example of what you can do stage training. And then stage training number five, number five stages training a sport specific training and it focuses on drills that help to improve conditioning. So that might be you think of things like the agility ladder, the speed ladder that might be there dot drills, sharks guild tests, some other things. You got high intensity interval training or small side games or agility drills that you do for the specific purpose of helping to increase sports performance. So there we've covered several topics today through our chapter 15. So 1314 and 15 on CPT domain five, thanks for joining this webinar.
Hope you found it helpful and supportive and learned a little bit about the CPT seven for those of you who have already gone through it. And for those of you who are studying for the exam, I hope you find this to be a nice overview and help support you and your process of studying. If you got questions for me feel free to reach out at Instagram Dr. Rick Richey ri ch e y or you can email me at Ric dot Richey at na s m.org. Thank you so much for your time. Thanks for listening. This has been the NASM CPT podcast.