Refuel, Repair, Rehydrate, Revitalize: Sports Nutrition for Optimum Recovery
Whether you’ve just finished a HIIT workout, completed a CrossFit WOD, hit your PR or finished a triathlon, your focus should move from performance to recovery. This involves:
Evidence-based strategies to enhance the recovery process should focus on:
- Energy balance
- Nutrient timing
Energy (calories) is the foundation of the repair process. Optimize your energy by focussing on the 3 Ts:
- Total– Match your caloric intake with your training/activity requirements and goals. Not eating enough stresses your nervous system and adrenals and may delay the recovery process.
- Type– Focus on carbohydrates for energy and glycogen restoration, adequate protein for repair and muscle protein synthesis, and healthy fats to minimize inflammation and support overall health.
- Timing– Time your meals strategically around training sessions and competitions.
Energy availability is essential for performance and recovery. Energy availability is the difference between energy intake (diet) and energy expenditure (exercise, training and competing, and NEAT- non-exercise activity thermogenesis).
Low Energy Availability (LEA) occurs when there is an imbalance between the energy intake (calories from carbohydrates, proteins and fats) and energy expenditure, resulting in an energy deficit. Affecting both men and women, LEA can be inadvertent, intentional or psychopathological (e.g., disordered eating). It is a factor that can adversely impact reproductive, skeletal and immune health, training, performance and recovery, as well as a risk factor for both macro- and micronutrient deficiencies.
Are you at risk for LEA?
|Performing multiple training sessions daily/weekly
Irregular eating patterns
Failing to meet your energy needs
Unrealistic/unsupervised calorie restriction to make your weight
Signs & Symptoms of Poor Energy Management
Anemia/low serum iron
Recurring infections and/or illnesses
Depression and/or irritability
Irregular menstrual cycles
Abnormal or unplanned weight loss
Decreased bone mineral density
|Inability to gain or build muscle or strength
Training hard but not improving performance
Decreased muscle strength and power
Practical Strategies to Meet Your Energy Needs
|Aim for three meals and snacks
Adjust your intake based on your activity needs
Supplement with additional snacks and protein shakes to meet the energy demands of your training, if necessary
|Develop realistic and health-minded performance and body composition goals
Set realistic timelines for any weight loss or body composition changes
Follow well-planned and personalized training and nutrition strategies that can best prepare you to perform and stay healthy
Determining Your Energy Needs
There are a number of online calculators that can help you estimate your Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and Activity Energy Expenditure to determine your Total Daily Energy Expenditure and optimum energy requirements.
Bottom Line- Meet your energy needs by matching your caloric intake with expenditure.
Macronutrients are both energy substrates and signaling molecules that can be strategically manipulated in order to ensure adequate recovery.
Carbohydrates (sugars, starches and fibers) are the primary energy source for moderate-intense activity. They can be categorized according to their glycemic effect.
High Glycemic (e.g., simple sugars)- rapid increase in blood glucose and insulin
Low Glycemic (e.g., complex fibrous foods)- slow increase in blood glucose
General Carbohydrate Guidelines:
Match needs based on activity:
- Low intensity/skill based: 3–5 g/kg BW
- Moderate intensity: 5–7 g/kg BW
- High intensity: 6–10 g/kg BW
- Extreme: 8–12 g/kg BW
Carbohydrates For Recovery
During postexercise recovery, optimal nutritional intake is important to replenish endogenous substrate stores and to facilitate muscle-damage repair and reconditioning. After exhaustive endurance-type exercise, muscle glycogen repletion forms the most important factor determining the time needed to recover.
The postexercise carbohydrate (CHO) recommendations is 1 g/kg/ BW hour for four hours, then match activity needs (see above). This is the most important determinant of muscle glycogen synthesis.
Since it is not always feasible to ingest such large amounts of CHO, the combined ingestion of a small amount of protein (0.2−0.4 g · kg−1 · hr−1) with less CHO (0.8 g · kg−1 · hr−1) stimulates endogenous insulin release and results in similar muscle glycogen-repletion rates as the ingestion of 1.2 g · kg−1 · hr−1CHO.
Additionally, postexercise protein and/or amino acid administration is warranted to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, inhibit protein breakdown, and allow net muscle protein accretion. The consumption of ~20 g intact protein, or an equivalent of ~9 g essential amino acids, has been reported to maximize muscle protein synthesis rates during the first hours of postexercise recovery.
Consuming CHO and protein (4:1) during the early phases of recovery has been shown to positively affect subsequent exercise performance and could be of specific benefit for athletes involved in multiple training or competition sessions on the same or consecutive days.
(Burke, L. M. 2015) (Smith-Ryan, A., & Antonio, J. 2013) (Beelen, M., et al. 2010)
Carbohydrate dosing relative to resistance training should be commensurate with intensity guidelines outlined under the carbohydrate section.
Large macromolecules of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
- Catalyzing metabolic reactions
- DNA replication
- Transporting molecules
- Muscle Protein Synthesis (MPS)
- Energy supply
Complete (All essential amino acids)- Animal products: beef, poultry, pork, lamb, fish, eggs, dairy
Incomplete- Plant products (Quinoa and soy are complete proteins, but there is an energy trade off, i.e., more calories/serving to get the same amount of leucine)
Protein and Recovery
Optimum protein consumption is a key to minimizing catabolism, stimulating muscle protein synthesis and facilitating repair.
Protein Recovery Guidelines For Strength Training:
- Protein Dose: 1.6–2.0 g/kg BW
- 25–0.5 g/kg BW/meal in 4 divided meals
- Branch Chain Amino Acids- Leucine dose: 3 g is optimal to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (whey is a good source)
- The addition of 50 g of carbohydrate with protein pre- and post-exercise can decrease muscle breakdown
- Consuming 1–2 small protein rich meals in the first 3 hours post-exercise can capture the peak of muscle protein synthesis
(Dreyer, H. C., Drummond, et al. 2008) (Norton, L. E., & Layman, D. K. 2006) (Smith-Ryan, A., & Antonio, J. 2013) (Naderi, A. et al. 2016)
Fats and oils are categorized according to the number and bonding of the carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain. The degree of saturation determines the melting point and stability.
Saturated fats – no double bonds. Solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated fats – one or more double bonds. Liquid at room temperature.
- Energy source and energy storage
- Hormone production
Essential Fatty Acid Balance
The Standard American Diet (SAD) is notoriously pro-inflammatory, with the Omega 6:Omega 3 greater than 4:1 (closer to 18:1).
To reduce inflammation and enhance recovery, athletes should focus on getting the fats in their diet from dark green leafy vegetables, flax/hemp seeds, walnuts, cold water fish, grass-fed beef, omega-3 eggs; and limit omega-6 (vegetable and seed oils). Saturated fat should come from grass fed, pasture raised animals. Olive and avocado oils are good choices for cooking.
(Simopoulos, A. P. 2008)
Fish Oil for Repair and Recovery
DOSE: AHA recommends 1 g/day for general health. To reduce soreness: 6 g dose, spread over the course of a day.
(Smith-Ryan, A., & Antonio, J. 2013)
Micronutrients and Phytonutrients
Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals. They are required in small quantities to ensure normal metabolism, growth and physical well-being.
If you’re diet is 50-75% plant-based and includes healthy fats and adequate protein, you are likely to get the vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients you need without having to rely on supplementation.
Phytonutrients, also called phytochemicals, are chemicals produced by plants. Phytonutrient-rich foods include colorful fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts, tea, cocoa, whole grains and many spices. Phytonutrients can aid in the recovery process due to their anti-inflammatory properties.
Antioxidants- Too much of a good thing?
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are free radicals that are produced during exercise that can cause skeletal muscle damage, fatigue and impair recovery. However, ROS and RNS also signal cellular adaptation processes.
Many athletes attempt to combat the deleterious effects of ROS and RNS by ingesting antioxidant supplements (e.g., vitamins A, E, C, and the minerals Se and Zn).
Unfortunately, interfering with ROS/RNS signalling in skeletal muscle during acute exercise may blunt favourable adaptations and can attenuate endurance training-induced and ROS/RNS mediated enhancements in antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial biogenesis, cellular defence mechanisms and insulin sensitivity.
In addition, antioxidant supplementation can have deleterious effects on the response to overload stress and high-intensity training, thereby adversely affecting the remodelling of skeletal muscle following resistance and high-intensity exercise.
The bottom line is that physiological doses (from the diet) are beneficial whereas supraphysiological doses (supplements) during exercise training may be detrimental to one’s gains
(Merry, T. L. and Ristow, M. 2016)
Water regulates body temperature, lubricates joints and transport nutrients. Signs of dehydration can include fatigue, muscle cramps and dizziness.
During the recovery phase, staying hydrated can help stimulate blood flow to the muscles, which can reduce muscle pain. In addition, hydration can help flush out toxins which can exacerbate muscle soreness.
Are You Dehydrated?
|Clear||Good hyrdration, overhydrated to mild dehydration|
|Pale Yellow||Good hydration or mild dehydration|
|Bright Yellow||Mild to moderate dehydration or possibly taking vitamin supplements|
|Orange, Amber||Moderate to severe dehydration|
|Tea / Apple Juice Colored||Severe dehydration|
*Exceptions do exist- can be caused by medications, protein supplmentation, vitamins, food pigments and artificial colorings, etc.
Endurance Sports Considerations
- Early consumption of at least 150% of fluid lost with dilute sodium solution (</= 50 mmol/L, e.g., isotonic sports drink)
- Events greater than 90 minutes require pre-event hydration strategies 2–3 days prior (e.g., consume 400-600 mL of fluid every 2–3 hours containing Na 40–100 mmol/L)
- Aim to hydrate back to pre-race weight
(Smith-Ryan, A., & Antonio, J. 2013)
Homemade Electrolyte Recovery Drink
- 1/2 cup fresh orange juice
- 1/4 cup fresh lemon juice
- 2 cups raw coconut water
- 2 tbsp organic raw honey
- 1/8 tsp Himalayan pink salt
Blend ingredients and chill
Nutrient Timing for Recovery
Timing your nutrition for recovery should included ensuring pre-exercise meal(s) adequately fuel your activity and that you optimise your macronutrients, as mentioned above, to maintain glycogen stores and protein balance. While there is some debate with respect to the post-exercise “optimum window,” one should consider that it is likely that glycogen replenishment and protein consumption soon after exercise or an event can help optimize adaptations and recovery and minimize adrenal stress and catabolism.
Supplements for Injury Recovery
Supplements can play a role, but the emphasis should be on, energy balance, macronutrients, micronutrients from whole foods and nutrient timing.
The following supplements can help with the recovery process:
|Curcumin||Anti-inflammatory||500 mg 3x/day||Poor absorption: Needs to be compounded with piperidine or phosphatidy- choline|
|Ginger||Anti-inflammatory||1g ginger powder 3x/day||Add to food or take as a supplement|
|Watermelon Juice (L-Citrulline and Lycopene)||Decreases lactic acid
Decreases muscle soreness- Anti-inflammatory
|500 mL of juice daily. Start 5 days before event and 20 minutes before exercise||Include as part of diet when in season|
|Increases nitric oxide, which helps with blood flow. Effective for aerobic, anaerobic and strength sports||250 mL daily||Consume regularly during training or competitions|
|Tart Cherry Juice||Antioxidant
|12 oz 2x/day for 8 consecutive days prior to event|
|Chocolate Milk||Glycogen Resynthesis
|16 oz||Post-exercise recovery|
|Collagen Peptides||Supports fibroblast and connective tissue for soft tissue and bone health||2 scoops in 8 oz water or juice twice daily||Choose product that is from grass fed/pasture raised sources|
|Vitamin C||Connective tissue repair
|500 mg-1 g daily||Watch bowel tolerance with higher doses|
(Black, C. D. et al. 2010) (Connolly, D. A. J. et al. 2006) (Davis, J. M. et al. 2007) (Saunders, M. J. 2011) (Smith-Ryan, A., & Antonio, J. 2013) (Tarazona-Díaz, M. P. 2013)
Summary of Key Points
- Focus on: Energy balance, macronutrients, micronutrients, nutrient timing, supplements
- Consider the 3 T’s- Total/Type/Timing
- JERF- Just Eat Real (and a Rainbow of) Food
- Keep hydrated
- Choose evidence-based supplements
Recovery smoothie (makes about 2 servings)
- 1 cup water
- 1 cup kale or spinach
- 1 peeled beet
- ½ cup frozen organic berries
- 1 banana
- ½ avocado
- ½ tsp raw cacao
Blend ingredients and enjoy!
Aragon, A. A., & Schoenfeld, B. J. (2013). Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?. Journal of the international society of sports nutrition, 10(1), 1.
Antonio, J., Ellerbroek, A., Silver, T., Orris, S., Scheiner, M., Gonzalez, A., & Peacock, C. A. (2015). A high protein diet (3.4 g/kg/d) combined with a heavy resistance training program improves body composition in healthy trained men and women–a follow-up investigation. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 39.
Bar-Peled, L., & Sabatini, D. M. (2014). Regulation of mTORC1 by amino acids. Trends in cell biology, 24(7), 400-406.
Beelen, M., Burke, L. M., Gibala, M. J., & Van Loon, L. J. (2010). Nutritional strategies to promote postexercise recovery. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 20(6), 515-532.
Black, C. D., Herring, M. P., Hurley, D. J., & O’Connor, P. J. (2010). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise. The Journal of Pain, 11(9), 894-903
Bryner, R. W., Ullrich, I. H., Sauers, J., Donley, D., Hornsby, G., Kolar, M., & Yeater, R. (1999). Effects of resistance vs. aerobic training combined with an 800 calorie liquid diet on lean body mass and resting metabolic rate. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 18(2), 115-121.
Burke, L. M. (2015). Re-Examining High-Fat Diets for Sports Performance: Did We Call the “Nail in the Coffin” Too Soon? Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.z.), 45(Suppl 1), 33–49. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0393-9
Burke, Louise, and Vicki Deakin, eds. Clinical sports nutrition. Beijing, Boston: McGraw-Hill, 5th edition 2015.
Cabrera, C., Artacho, R., & Giménez, R. (2006). Beneficial effects of green tea—a review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 25(2), 79-99.
Clark, M. A., Lucett, S., Sutton, B. (2018). NASM essentials of personal fitness training 6th ed. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Connolly, D. A. J., McHugh, M. P., & Padilla-Zakour, O. I. (2006). Efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in preventing the symptoms of muscle damage. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(8), 679-683.
Davis, J. M., Murphy, E. A., Carmichael, M. D., Zielinski, M. R., Groschwitz, C. M., Brown, A. S., … & Mayer, E. P. (2007). Curcumin effects on inflammation and performance recovery following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 292(6), R2168-R2173.
Dreyer, H. C., Drummond, M. J., Pennings, B., Fujita, S., Glynn, E. L., Chinkes, D. L., … & Rasmussen, B. B. (2008). Leucine-enriched essential amino acid and carbohydrate ingestion following resistance exercise enhances mTOR signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism, 294(2), E392-E400.
González-Garrido, J. A., García-Sánchez, J. R., Garrido-Llanos, S., & Olivares-Corichi, I. M. (2015). An association of cocoa consumption with improved physical fitness and decreased muscle damage and oxidative stress in athletes. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness.
Higdon, J. V., & Frei, B. (2006). Coffee and health: a review of recent human research. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 46(2), 101-123.
Hodgson, A. B., Randell, R. K., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2013). The Metabolic and Performance Effects of Caffeine Compared to Coffee during Endurance Exercise. PLoS ONE, 8(4), e59561. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059561
Jéquier, E., & Constant, F. (2010). Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration. European journal of clinical nutrition, 64(2), 115-123.
Kimball, S. R., & Jefferson, L. S. (2006). Signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms through which branched-chain amino acids mediate translational control of protein synthesis. The Journal of nutrition, 136(1), 227S-231S.
Knuiman, P., Hopman, M. T., & Mensink, M. (2015). Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise.Nutrition & metabolism, 12(1), 1.
Laplante, M., & Sabatini, D. M. (2012). mTOR signaling in growth control and disease. Cell, 149(2), 274–293.
Liang, H., & Ward, W. F. (2006). PGC-1α: a key regulator of energy metabolism. Advances in physiology education, 30(4), 145-151
Longland, T. M., Oikawa, S. Y., Mitchell, C. J., Devries, M. C., & Phillips, S. M. (2016). Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 103(3), 738-746.
Merry, T. L. and Ristow, M. (2016), Do antioxidant supplements interfere with skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise training?. J Physiol, 594: 5135–5147. doi:10.1113/JP270654
Moore, J., & Fung, J. (2016). The Complete Guide to Fasting: Heal Your Body Through Intermittent, Alternate-Day, and Extended Fasting. Simon and Schuster.
Murase, T., Haramizu, S., Shimotoyodome, A., Tokimitsu, I., & Hase, T. (2006). Green tea extract improves running endurance in mice by stimulating lipid utilization during exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 290(6), R1550-R1556.
Naderi, A., de Oliviera, E. P., Ziegenfuss, T. N., & Willems, M. E. (2016). Timing, optimal dose and intake duration of dietary supplements with evidence-based uses in sports nutrition. Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry.
Nieman, D. C., Gillitt, N. D., Henson, D. A., Sha, W., Shanely, R. A., Knab, A. M., … Jin, F. (2012). Bananas as an Energy Source during Exercise: A Metabolomics Approach. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e37479. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037479
Norton, L. E., & Layman, D. K. (2006). Leucine regulates translation initiation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle after exercise. The Journal of nutrition, 136(2), 533S-537S.
Saunders, M. J. (2011). Carbohydrate-protein intake and recovery from endurance exercise: Is chocolate milk the answer?. Current sports medicine reports, 10(4), 203-210.
Simopoulos, A. P. (2008). The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Experimental biology and medicine, 233(6), 674-688.
Smith-Ryan, A., & Antonio, J. (Eds.). (2013). Sports Nutrition & Performance Enhancing Supplements. Linus Learning.
Solon-Biet, S. M., McMahon, A. C., Ballard, J. W. O., Ruohonen, K., Wu, L. E., Cogger, V. C., … & Gokarn, R. (2014). The ratio of macronutrients, not caloric intake, dictates cardiometabolic health, aging, and longevity in ad libitum-fed mice. Cell metabolism, 19(3), 418-430.
Tarazona-Díaz, M. P., Alacid, F., Carrasco, M., Martínez, I., & Aguayo, E. (2013). Watermelon juice: potential functional drink for sore muscle relief in athletes. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 61(31), 7522-7528.
Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A., & Burke, L. M. (2016). Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics, dietitians of canada, and the american college of sports medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(3), 501-528.