CESFitnessNewsletterTraining Benefits

Foam Rolling- Applying the Technique of Self-myofascial Release

 

By Stacey Penney, MS, NASM-CPT, CES, PES, FNS

Foam rolling is a self-myofascial release (SMR) stretching technique that has been embraced throughout the fitness industry. This effective and simple to do technique delivers positive, feel good results. Foam rollers have become easily accessible, either shared at the gym or found in almost any sporting goods aisle to bring home for a minimal investment. Using the foam roller can deliver improvements in flexibility, muscle recovery, movement efficiency, inhibiting overactive muscles, and pain reduction with just minutes of application

Why SMR?

SMR can be done with a variety of tools beyond foam rollers, such as medicine balls, handheld rollers or other assistive devices. Foam rollers vary in density, surface structure, and even temperature modifications. Whatever the tool or variation selected, SMR focuses on the neural and fascial systems in the body that can be negatively influenced by poor posture, repetitive motions, or dysfunctional movements (1). These mechanically stressful actions are recognized as an injury by the body, initiating a repair process called the Cumulative Injury Cycle (Figure 1) (1). This cycle follows a path of inflammation, muscle spasm, and the development of soft tissue adhesions that can lead to altered neuromuscular control and muscle imbalance (1-4). The adhesions reduce the elasticity of the soft tissues and can eventually cause a permanent change in the soft tissue structure, referred to as Davis’s Law. SMR focuses on alleviating these adhesions (also known as “trigger points” or “knots”) to restore optimal muscle motion and function (1,5).

Figure1

SMR is based on the principal of autogenic inhibition. Skeletal muscle tissue contains muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs (GTO), two neural receptors. Muscle spindles are sensory receptors running parallel to muscle fibers, sensitive to a change and rate of muscle lengthening. When stimulated, they will cause a myotatic stretch reflex that causes the muscle to contract. The GTO receptors, located in the musculotendinous junctions, are stimulated by a change and rate of tension, and when they are stimulated will cause the muscle to relax (2). When a change in tension is sustained at an adequate intensity and duration, muscle spindle activity is inhibited causing a decrease in trigger point activity, accompanied by a reduction of pain (1,6-7). In simpler terms, when the pressure of the body against the foam roller is sustained on the trigger point, the GTO will “turn off” the muscle spindle activity allowing the muscle fibers to stretch, unknot, and realign (5).

          Davis’s Law: Soft tissue models along lines of stress.

Autogenic Inhibition: The process by which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the impulses that cause muscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles.

The Benefits of SMR

SMR benefits include:

  • Correction of muscle imbalances
  • Muscle relaxation (1,2)
  • Improved joint range of motion
  • Improved neuromuscular efficiency (1,3,4)
  • Reduced soreness and improved tissue recovery (1)
  • Suppression/reduction of trigger point sensitivity and pain (2,6,7)
  • Decreased neuromuscular hypertonicity (1)
  • Provide optimal length-tension relationships
  • Decrease the overall effects of stress on the human movement system (1)

Guidelines to Start Rolling

Foam rolling should be done before static or dynamic stretching activities, improving the tissue’s ability to lengthen during stretching activities. Foam rolling can also be done as part of the cool-down (1-2). Foam rolling activities should be performed on tissues identified as overactive during the assessment process.

Most clients can enjoy foam rolling on their own once they’ve been instructed on how to properly perform the exercises. Foam rolling is not appropriate for all clients, including those with congestive heart failure, kidney failure, or any organ failure, bleeding disorders, or contagious skin conditions. If clients have medical issues, have them seek the advice of their medical professional before starting SMR or foam rolling activities (1).

Slowly roll the targeted area until the most tender spot is found. Hold on that spot while relaxing the targeted area and discomfort is reduce, between 30 seconds and 90 seconds (1,7). During the exercises it is important to maintain core stability. Use the drawing-in maneuver (pulling the navel in toward the spine) to maintain stability in the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex (1). Take the time to experience the exercises and discover how slightly modifying positions or angles can target different areas of the muscle.

Here are some of the top foam roller exercises to get you and your clients started on a path to moving and feeling better.

Calves (Gastrocnemius/Soleus)

Figure2

Place foam roller under the mid-calf. Cross the opposite leg over the top of the other to increase pressure. Slowly roll calf area to find the most tender spot. Hold that spot for 30-90 seconds until the discomfort is reduced. Especially beneficial for runners or those who regularly wear shoes with elevated heels (8). Switch legs and repeat.

Adductors

Figure3

Lie face down and place one thigh, flexed and abducted, over the foam roller. Slowly roll the upper, inner thigh area to find the most tender spot. Hold for 30-90 seconds until the discomfort is reduced. Switch legs and repeat.

Tensor Fascia Latae (TFL) 

Figure4

Lie on one side with the foam roller just in front of the hip. Cross the top leg over the lower leg, placing that foot on the floor. Slowly roll from the hip joint down toward the knee to find the tender spot. Hold for 30-90 seconds until the discomfort is reduced. Switch sides and repeat.

Piriformis

Figure5

Sit on top of the foam roller, positioned on the back of the hip, crossing one foot over the opposite knee. Lean into the hip of the crossed leg. Slowly roll on the posterior hip area to find the tender spot. Hold for 30-90 seconds until the discomfort is reduced. Repeat on other side.

Latissimus Dorsi

Figure6Lie on one side with the arm closest to the ground outstretched with thumb facing upwards. Place the foam roller under the arm in the axillary region. Slowly roll back and forth to find the tender spot. Hold for 30-90 seconds until the discomfort is reduced. Repeat on other side.

Thoracic Spine

Figure7

Lie on the floor with the foam roller behind the upper back. Cross arms to opposite shoulders. Raise hips off the floor and slowly roll back and forth to find the tender spot. Hold for 30-90 seconds.

Be sure to check out NASM’s YouTube station for more SMR videos!

References

  1. Clark MA, Lucett SL. NASM Essentials of Corrective Exercise Training, Baltimore, MD:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2011.
  2. Clark MA, Lucett SL. NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training 4th ed. Baltimore, MD:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2012.
  3. Edgerton VR, Wolf S, Roy RR. Theoretical basis for patterning EMG amplitudes to assess muscle dysfunction. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28(6):744-751.
  4. Janda V. Muscle weakness and inhibition in back pain syndromes. In: Grieve GP (ed). Modern Manual Therpay of the Vertebral Column. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1986.
  5. Reid DA, McNair PJ. Passive force, angle and stiffness changes after stretching of hamstring muscles. Med Sci Sports Exer 2004;36(11):1944-48.
  6. Hanten WP, Olson SL, Butts NL, Nowicki AL. Effectiveness of a home program of ischemic pressure followed by sustained stretch for treatment of myofascial trigger points. Phys Ther 2000;80:997-1003.
  7. Hou CR, Tsai LC, Cheng KF, Chung KC, Hong CZ. Immediate effects of various therapeutic modalities on cervical myofascial pain and trigger-point sensitivity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83: 1406-14.
  8. Grieve R, et al. The immediate effect of soleus trigger point pressure release on restricted ankle joint dorsiflexion: A pilot randomised controlled trial. J Bodyw Mov Ther.2011;15:42-49.

 

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  • Michele

    The information about foam rolling is ever changing. We are dealing with muscle and fascia together as one unit with this type of intervention, as you know. Some manual therapies claim to deal with just fascia. I can’t comment on that. That being said, the properties of fascia are very unique with several types of mechanoreceptors and if stimulated beyond a certain capacity, can become nociceptors. Finding a sensitive spot and really holding it could cause a problem unless someone is experienced with this and properly hydrated. A dehydrated person finding very sore spots could produce the opposite of the desired affect. I have sources I can send you if you like. I really just found this out in January and am continuing this area of research for my grad school studies. Crazy amount of info. out there for manual therapists, BUT it applies to us foam rolling folk as we are applying pressure to the same tissues.

  • Curtis

    You are missing the directions to roll out the Piriformis. The directions to roll out the Latissimus Dorsi was copied twice. Please correct and send I would like to print this for my clients.

  • Anastasia Encarnacion

    Hi Stacey,
    Did you leave instructions for the piriformis and thoracic spine off for a reason, or was it a publishing error?
    Let me know, please,
    Anastasia

  • http://blog.nasm.org/author/national-academy-of-sports-medicine/ nasm

    Sorry for the duplicate and missing instructions. This has been fixed

  • David

    I found this video regarding myofascial release using a foam roller. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92AEO0-YM78

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  • judith meigher

    Very helpful. I need proper piraformis technique.

  • judith meigher

    Very helpful. I need proper piraformis technique. Piraformis.

  • Rakesh Gulia

    If the client is seriously obese…can we do dis….?

  • http://www.holistichealthrevolution.com Michelle

    If you enjoy foam rolling, I truly encourage you to investigate Yamuna® Body Rolling. Yamuna’s cutting edge techniques take foam rolling to a much deeper and therapeutic level, creating sustainable changes in muscle length, balance and structural alignment. The ball designed for the practice comes in different sizes and densities and provides a much more satisfying and complete release than the foam roller. Rather than randomly rolling back and forth as in foam rolling, you only roll in one direction, from origin to insertion of the muscles, moving in the direction of the muscle fibers and you always roll out both sides, creating balance in the entire body. The balls can safely go in places a foam roller cannot and sinks much deeper into the body than foam. I have been a practitioner for over 10 years, and use it with my clients with very dramatic and exciting results. Check it out, if you’re curious! http://www.holistichealthrevolution.com/yamunareg-body-rolling.html

  • http://fitness-mojo.net/ Joe

    Excellent post!

    I myself posted an article explaining how to use a foam roller which can be found here: http://fitness-mojo.net/use-foam-roller/

  • http://nasmtrainerhouston.com James Redding

    Great post and excellent explanation of SMR.